Bladder cancer is among the five most common malignancies worldwide. If detected early, 5-year survival is high (94%), but >70% of diagnosed patients will have disease recurrence within this period, with 20% progressing to muscle invasive cancer (T2 or higher). High prevalence, survival and recurrence rates combine to make BC one of the most expensive cancers to treat and monitor. The gold standard diagnostic tool is combined cystoscopy and cytology which is costly and highly invasive requiring transurethral access and presenting the risk of important complications and discomfort to patients. Surveillance requires frequent cystoscopies, on average in excess of 13 per patient following initial diagnosis and treatment. A clear opportunity exists to replace surveillance, and eventually initial examinations with a cost-effective and non-invasive procedure.